X-rays are one type of electromagnetic radiation. They are commonly used in hospitals to produce photographs of bones which can be checked for breaks or fractures.
More dense areas in our bodies, such as bone, allow fewer X-rays through and so appear paler on X-ray images
Less dense areas, such as skin and many tissues, allow more X-rays though. These appear black on X-ray images
Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and structures inside the body. Health care professionals use it to view the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound does not expose you to radiation.
A laboratory is a laboratory where tests are usually done on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient as pertaining to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Private laboratories receive samples from general practitioners, insurance companies, clinical research sites and other health clinics for analysis. For extremely specialised tests, samples may go to a research laboratory. A lot of samples are sent between different labs for uncommon tests. It is more cost effective if a particular laboratory specializes in a rare test, receiving specimens) from other labs, while sending away tests it cannot do.